PEPTIDES – WHAT ARE THEY AND WHAT DO THEY DO?

In Blog by hostworks

Written by Gianna Barry, CIE, Inc. Instructor

Peptides are among the most powerful and interesting skin care ingredients used today. They are being successfully used in anti-aging (wrinkle) products both by professionals during facial services as well as by clients at home!
Peptides are short chains of amino acids. Amino acids are the basic build blocks of proteins and many other types of organic molecules. They are created by the digestion of proteins in the body. Many types of peptides are readily and rapidly absorbed by the bloodstream, making them successful in their effectiveness as a skin care ingredient.
Skin is made up mostly of collagen, which is the foundation that gives skin its support and thickness. Young people have taut, smooth skin with a lot of collagen. In contrast, older people have much less collagen resulting in thinner, more wrinkled skin. When we age, collagen is destroyed but not replaced. As a result, young, smooth skin becomes thinner and wrinkled over time.

Collagen is a protein and is made up long chains of amino acids strung together, similar to chains of linked building blocks. When broken down, short segments of 3-5 amino acids form, called peptides. Peptides are not just junk collagen; these “mini proteins” are active molecules — and you pay a whole lot for them in your wrinkle cream.
One strategy to improve wrinkles and to make you look younger is by replacing lost collagen. When collagen breaks down, it forms specific peptides. These peptides act as a signal, telling your skin it has been damaged and it needs to make new collagen. Applying peptides directly to the skin is a way to trick it into thinking that it has lost collagen and needs to make more.

Because peptides are a widely variable group of molecules, it’s impossible to lump them together and describe as a whole, and different peptides have different effects. Many peptides work as hormones, neurotransmitters and as natural pain relievers. They also work when applied topically as botulinum toxin injections (BOTOX injections) do. Peptides can be used anywhere on the body, whereas injections are limited to small areas of face or body. They are small and as a result they can penetrate the skin’s protective barriers to get to the deeper layers of the skin.
Peptides are a tremendous asset in anti-aging products and are a wonder tool in age prevention. For further understanding of specific Peptides and their descriptions and benefits, please read on.

The 4 main POWERFUL PEPTIDES that are used in skin care ingredients are ACETYL HEXAPEPTIDE – 3, PALMITOYL PEPTIDE – 3, PALMITOLY OLIGOPEPTIDE and COPPER PEPTIDE. FREEZING PEPTIDES ARGIRELINE (ACETYL HEXAPEPTIDE 8), INYLINE (ACETYK HEXAPETIDE 30), and DIAMINOBUTYROYL BENZYLAMIDE DIACETATE also exist.

ACETYL HEXAPEPTIDE – 3 can relax certain types of facial wrinkles. When topically applied, it treats the same type of wrinkles as botulinum toxin injections.

MATRIXYL – PALMITOYL PENTAPEPTIDE – 3 is a fatty acid mixed with amino acids. It is considered to be a synthetic isomer (an isomer is molecule that has an identical structure to another molecule but different atomic components). The active element Matrixyl is called Micro-collagen which is yet another peptide. It works by stimulating the deeper, matrix layers of the skin. This peptide increases overall collagen production, the production of collagen IV, and hyaluronic acid synthesis the skin. This peptide also helps the skin to heal wounds faster.

PALMITOYL OLIGOPEPTIDE stimulates the deeper, matrix layers of the skin the same way as Palmitoyl Penetapeptide 3 does. In addition, this peptide has a mild UV protection effect which can help protect the skin from UV damage. This cannot be used in place of sunblock.

COPPER PEPTIDES are a small family of peptides that include a copper molecule in their structure. Copper peptides promote collagen production, act as an antioxidant, encourage natural skin healing to wounds, and regenerates the skin to help remove damaged collagen.

FREEZING PEPTIDES are not frozen, nor do they chill or cool the skin. They actually freeze or inhibit muscle contractions to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. These peptides are also known as neurotransmitter peptides. Repetitive motion of the facial muscles can mimic wrinkles and become deeper over time. This includes frown lines, laughter lines, crow’s feet, “11” wrinkles and land lip lines. Acetylcholine is an organic molecule and ester of acetic acid and choline. It is one of the several neurotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system that aids muscle contraction. Freezing peptides can suppress acetylcholine, producing a similar effect as Botox and fillers (which temporarily paralyze the muscle). Neurotransmitter peptides prevent the message “to contract” from being received by the muscle rather than paralyzing it.

ARGIRELINE (ACETYL HEXAPEPTIDE 8) effects muscle contraction in the presynaptic membrane. It decreases excessive neurotransmitter release and overproduction of catecholamines, which are derived from tyrosine. The message simply will not be released or sent.

INYLINE (ACETYL HEXAPEPTIDE 30) is a new peptide. It targets wrinkle expression by way of blocking muscle specific kinase. It blocks the muscle from actually receiving the message to contract.
DIPEPTIDE DIAMINOBUTYROYL BENZYLAMIDE DIACETATE is a small peptide that mimics the polypeptide found in the venom of the Temple Viper. This is a tri-peptide that targets neuromuscular activity to smooth existing lines and wrinkles and prevents future ones from appearing.

RESOURCES:
Skin Care 101 www.examiner.com/article/skin-care-101-what-are-peptides-peptides-protein-and-collagen
Smartskincare.com www.smartskincare.com/treatments/topical/acetylhexapeptide.html
Paula’s Choice www.Paulachoice.com
Derma Blog June 23 2008 Dr. Benablo www.thedermabog.com
Wrinkle Review www.wrinklereview.com/wrinkle-reducer/matrixly.html
Rhonda Allison Skin Care www.rhondaallison.com Blog What are freezing peptides and how do they work.